JACKSON AVW (1938) This new identification out of Mani, new inventor away from Manichaeism

Although present it’s as if he was missing, and although live it is because if he was in fact dry

Diary of your own Western Oriental People 58: 235-forty. Going representations of Mani otherwise Manes, c. 216-276 Le, are chatted about, having attention of your culture noted by al-Nadim (creating c. 987 Ce) one Mani is lame in both ft or even in his best feet. You to culture was supported by retranslation from a phrase from inside the brand new Pahlavi Denkart (step 3.200, 1-13) (come across Dinkard, above), using the name ‘broken’ otherwise ‘crippled’ in order to Mani (come across below, al-Nadim, Fihrist, pp. 773, 794).

Al-JAHIZ (Abu Othman Amr container Bahr). Al-Barsan wal-Argan wal-Umyan wal-Hawlan [The latest Lepers, the new Lame, the newest Blind, as well as the Squinting], ed. Abdel-Salam Haroun (1998). Cairo. Al-Jahiz (776-868) are a prolific, influential and somewhat unappealing creator having ‘goggle eyes’ (jahiz), within Basra (now into the Iraq), whoever work has been much cited along side Arab globe. Right here, based on Michael Dols, he discussed “physical infirmities such as for instance epidermis conditions, lameness, paralysis, and you will deafness and personal attributes such as for example hair loss, leanness, and ugliness.” His aim was to demonstrate that “actual infirmities and you can peculiarities do not hinder a single of being a fully energetic person in new Muslim area or bar him out of very important offices. Al-Jahiz maintained you to definitely actual problems aren’t personal stigmas but they are what tends to be named signs and symptoms of divine blessing otherwise choose.” (Yards Dols, 1983, The newest leper into the Gothic Islamic area. Speculum 58: 891-916, toward p. 901) Even with his personal contact with negative social reactions, al-Jahiz in another of his ideal-understood work, ‘The Wonders away from Creation’, had written harshly on the public aspects of deafness. Apart from the deaf man or woman’s loss of musical, “Everyone is bored stiff in his business and he is a burden to them. He or she is not able to listen to some of the man’s stories and you will discussions. ” (quoted by the F. Haj, Disability inside the Antiquity, q.v., p. 159). A different commentator notes you to “Al-Barsan wal-Argan. ” is among the most hard functions Jahiz, and its own question is almost book from inside the historical Arabic literary works. (Truth be told there does not seem to be an English translation available at present).

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JAIN, Jagdish C (1947) Lifestyle for the Ancient India as the Depicted on Jain Canons. Bombay: The latest Publication Lebanone single Providers. Sickness and you will cures, as well as various handicaps, from Jaina supply (pp. 178-81). Individuals with handicaps, plus rational retardation, try omitted regarding joining religious orders (194). Find Tattvartha Sutra, below; and additionally next a couple affairs).

[JAINA Texts] Gaina Sutras translated of Prakrit, transl. Hermann Jacobi, dos vols, (1884 and 1895), SBE 22 & 45, Oxford: Clarendon. [The SBE collection put a keen italicised ‘G’ in the place of ‘J’, for certain explanations. Here ‘Gaina’ has been reinserted from the normal alphabetical order to have benefits.] – The brand new Akaranga Sutra (during the vol. I), out of probably the fifth century Ce, gave tuition to possess an effective holy and innocuous lifestyle. Handicap and you can handicap arrive, elizabeth.g. “to your deterioration of your perceptions of the ear canal, attention, areas out of smell, sampling, pressing, one gets aware of the brand new decline away from lives” (vol. I: p. 15) [Bk I (2) 1]. Fresh fruit regarding wrong serves when you look at the before lifestyle was: “Boils and you can leprosy, practices, dropping diseases, loss of sight and firmness, lameness and you can humpbackedness, Dropsy and dumbness, research! apoplexy (?) and eye-disease, moving and you will crippledness, elephantiasis and diabetes, These represent the 16 disorder specified during the owed acquisition; in addition to all of them of several conditions and injuries can be found.” (I: 54) [Bk I (6) step one.] Yet right-minded individuals is take care to have fun with inoffensive terms whenever appointment anyone with such as requirements. They “must not speak of those such as this: ‘He has got boils otherwise leprosy, etcetera [including this new terminology found over]; his hand is actually reduce, otherwise their base, nostrils, ear, lip is cut.’ Having once the all these people, spoken so you’re able to such language, become enraged, hence, offered really, they need to perhaps not speak with all of them such code.” (I: 152-53) [Bk II, (4) dos.] – The newest Uttaradhyayana Sutra (inside the Vol. II) as well as notes handicap with age, “In case your system expands dated, along with your hair converts white, the effectiveness of the ears reduces”, furthermore into eyes, nostrils, tongue, contact (II: p. 44) [section X]. – The latest Sutrakritanga Sutra (for the Vol. II) says in the passageway the fresh new “blind-born guy” (p. 243), and you can “dudes just who walk-on crutches” (p. 269). Monks hankering shortly after relationship is cautioned of your dreadful disablement of one condition: becoming bought regarding from beginning right until midnight by spouse, additionally the remaining portion of the nights comforting babies and you will laundry the nappies (pp. 275-78). Monks who get involved in erotic pleasures is actually promised nevertheless even worse pains when they pass away; following it “would be produced deaf-and-dumb, otherwise blind [footnote: possibly blind by the beginning, otherwise seriously foolish otherwise ignorant], or dumb because of the delivery.” (p. 363; comparable to your pp. 367, 430) [Bk dos (2); and you can 2 (7)].